Conservation -- September 2000

Global Carnivorous Plant Diversity A Contribution from the Carnivorous Plant Specialist Group (CPSG) of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN, SSC)

Jan Schlauer

Keywords: conservation: biodiversity, taxa.

Introduction

For species conservation and for taxonomic purposes it is necessary to know the geographical distribution of the species concerned. The "value" of a region as a resource of biodiversity is usually estimated from the number of species occurring in and/or endemic to it. However, simple species numbers are not always a reliable measure of biodiversity because they depend on the circumscriptions of species, which can vary considerably with the species concept applied. In order to arrive at a somewhat more consolidated basis, taxonomic ranks above species (viz. section, genus, and family) have been added in the present survey. Additionally, a division between Lentibulariaceae + Byblidaceae (sympetalous plants) and the other (dialypetalous) families has been made in order to reflect differences between groups of different phylogenetic origin. The sympetalous families are believed to be members of a younger group (appearing in Early Tertiary) than the dialypetalous ones. While there are certainly young species in several of the other groups (e.g. in Drosera), the respective families are comparatively old (with assumedly pre-Tertiary origins).

In the following tables, the numbers of carnivorous plant species endemic to/occurring in the world's floristic regions and provinces (as outlined by Takhtajan, 1986) are given. Data were taken from the carnivorous plant database on the internet (http://www.hpl.hp.com/bot/cp_home). The families considered are: Droseraceae, Drosophyllaceae, Dioncophyllaceae, Nepenthaceae, Cephalotaceae, Roridulaceae, Sarraceniaceae, Byblidaceae, and Lentibulariaceae. Sectional classification follows Casper (1966) for Pinguicula, Fromm-Trinta (1977) for Genlisea, Schlauer (1996) for Drosera, and Taylor (1989) for Utricularia. No sections (i.e. only one section for all species in the genus) were recognized in Nepenthes (the genus does not show marked infrageneric differentiation above species level, and former attempts at a sectional classification were obviously artificial) and the remaining small genera.

Several taxa occur in more than one province, but some of these taxa are restricted to a single region. Therefore, the count of taxa endemic to a region may exceed the sum of taxa endemic to its constituent provinces.

The floristic regions and provinces are defined as follows:

I. Circumboreal Region

1 Arctic
2 Atlantic Europe
3 Central Europe
4 Illyria or Balkan
5 Pontus Euxinus
6 Caucasus
7 Eastern Europe
8 Northern Europe
9 Western Siberia
10 Altai-Sayan
11 Central Siberia
12 Transbaikalia
13 Northeastern Siberia
14 Okhotsk-Kamchatka
15 Canada incl. Great Lakes

II. Eastern Asiatic Region

16 Manchuria
17 Sakhalin-Hokkaido
18 Japan-Korea
19 Volcano-Bonin
20 Ryukyu or Tokara-Okinawa
21 Taiwan
22 Northern China
23 Central China
24 Southeastern China
25 Sikang-Yuennan
26 Northern Burma
27 Eastern Himalaya
28 Khasi-Manipur

III. North American Atlantic Region

29 Appalachians
30 Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain
31 North American Prairies

IV. Rocky Mountain Region

32 Vancouver
33 Rocky Mountains

V. Macaronesian Region

34 Azores
35 Madeira
36 Canaries
37 Cape Verde

VI. Mediterranean Region

38 Southern Morocco
39 Southwestern Mediterranean
40 South Mediterranean
41 Iberia
42 Baleares
43 Liguria-Tyrrhenia
44 Adriatic
45 East Mediterranean
46 Crimea-Novorossijsk

VII. Saharo-Arabian Region

47 Sahara
48 Egypt-Arabia

VIII. Irano-Turanian Region

49 Mesopotamia
50 Central Anatolia
51 Armenia-Iran
52 Hyrcania
53 Turania or Aralo-Caspia
54 Turkestan
55 Northern Baluchistan
56 Western Himalaya
57 Central Tien Shan
58 Dzungaria-Tien Shan
59 Mongolia
60 Tibet

IX. Madrean Region

61 Great Basin
62 California
63 Sonora
64 Mexican Highlands

X. Guineo-Congolian Region

65 Upper Guinea
66 Nigeria-Cameroon
67 Congo

XI. Usambara-Zululand Region

68 Zanzibar-Inhambane
69 Tongoland-Pondoland

XII. Sudano-Zambezian Region

70 Zambezi
71 Sahel
72 Sudan
73 Somalia-Ethiopia
74 South Arabia
75 Socotra
76 Oman
77 South Iran
78 Sindia

XIII. Karoo-Namib Region

79 Namibia
80 Namaland
81 Western Cape
82 Karoo

XIV. St.Helena and Ascension Region

83 St. Helena and Ascension

XV. Madagascan Region

84 Eastern Madagascar
85 Western Madagascar
86 Southern and Southwestern Madagascar
87 Comoro
88 Mascarenes
89 Seychelles

XVI. Indian Region

90 Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
91 Malabar
92 Deccan
93 Upper Gangetic Plain
94 Bengal

XVII. Indochinese Region

95 South Burma
96 Andamanes
97 South China
98 Thailand
99 North Indochina
100 Annam
101 South Indochina

XVIII. Malesian Region

102 Malaya
103 Borneo
104 Philippines
105 Sumatra
106 South Malesia
107 Celebes
108 Moluccas and W New Guinea
109 Papua
110 Bismarck Archipelago

XIX. Fijian Region

111 New Hebrides
112 Fiji

XX. Polynesian Region

113 Micronesia
114 Polynesia

XXI. Hawaiian Region

115 Hawaii

XXII. Neocaledonian Region

116 New Caledonia

XXIII. Caribbean Region

117 Central America
118 West Indies
119 Galapagos

XXIV. Region of the Guayana Highlands

120 Guayana

XXV. Amazonian Region

121 Amazonia
122 Llanos

XXVI. Brazilian Region

123 Caatingas
124 Central Brazilian Uplands
125 Chaco
126 Atlantic Brazil
127 Parana

XXVII. Andean Region

128 Northern Andes
129 Central Andes

XXVIII. Cape Region

130 Cape

XXIX. Northeast Australian Region

131 North Australia
132 Queensland
133 Southeast Australia
134 Tasmania

XXX. Southwest Australian Region

135 Southwest Australia

XXXI. Central Australian or Eremaean Region

136 Eremaea

XXXII. Fernandezian Region

137 Juan Fernandez

XXXIII. Chile-Patagonian Region

138 Northern Chile
139 Central Chile
140 Pampas
141 Patagonia
142 Tierra del Fuego

XXXIV. Region of the South Subantarctic Islands

143 Tristan-Gough
144 Kerguelen

XXXV. Neozeylandic Region

145 Lord Howe
146 Norfolk
147 Kermadec
148 Northern New Zealand
149 Central New Zealand
150 Southern New Zealand
151 Chatham
152 New Zealand Subantarctic Islands

 

Conclusions and Recommendations

Generally, centres with comparatively high numbers of indigenous carnivorous plant taxa are also centres of carnivorous plant endemism (SW Australia and the Malesian region for dialypetalous carnivorous plants, in the first line the genera Drosera and Nepenthes, respectively; Mexico, the Guayana Highland, and N Australia for sympetalous carnivorous plants, in the first line Pinguicula and Utricularia). The areas of greatest species richness are usually also rich in indigenous and endemic sections. Generic and family diversity is fairly low in most regions (the highest count of indigenous genera being five in SE N America and in Upper Guinea, the highest family count being four in W New Guinea, NE and SW Australia). Endemic genera are found in SE N America (Dionaea), W N America (Darlingtonia), the SW Mediterranean (Drosophyllum), Upper Guinea (Triphyophyllum), the Guayana Highland (Heliamphora), the Cape region (Roridula), and SW Australia (Cephalotus).

Future efforts of species and especially of habitat conservation in connection with carnivorous plants should take into account the global "importance" of the floristic regions and provinces concerned. Floristic provinces marked by high endemism should be given particular attention. Perhaps surprisingly for some, areas of great carnivorous plant diversity (especially at higher taxonomic ranks like genera and families) are not confined to the tropics or to developing countries. It is to be hoped that this information will reach the persons and organizations responsible for and in charge of appropriate legislation.

 

Dialypetalous

Sympetalous

Families

Genera

Sections

Species

Families

Genera

Sections

Species

Region

Province

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

I

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

1

0

2

0

3

0

9

2

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

1

0

2

0

4

0

12

3

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

5

0

1

0

2

0

3

1

12

4

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

1

0

2

0

3

0

6

5

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

4

0

1

0

2

0

2

0

4

6

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

7

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

5

0

1

0

2

0

2

0

5

8

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

3

0

1

0

2

0

3

0

8

9

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

1

0

2

0

3

0

6

10

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

1

0

2

0

3

0

7

11

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

1

0

2

0

3

0

7

12

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

1

0

2

0

3

0

6

13

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

1

0

2

0

3

0

6

14

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

1

0

2

0

2

0

6

15

0

2

0

2

0

2

1

5

0

1

0

2

0

6

0

15

Total 15

0

3

0

3

0

3

2

7

0

1

0

2

0

9

3

26

II

16

0

1

0

2

0

2

0

3

0

1

0

2

0

2

0

4

17

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

1

0

2

0

3

0

6

18

0

1

0

2

0

5

0

6

0

1

0

2

0

6

2

13

19

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

20

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

2

21

0

1

0

1

0

3

0

3

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

7

22

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

2

0

3

0

3

23

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

5

0

8

24

0

1

0

1

0

3

0

4

0

1

0

1

0

4

1

7

25

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

2

0

5

0

10

26

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

8

27

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

5

0

11

28

0

2

0

2

0

3

1

3

0

1

0

1

0

6

0

10

Total 13

0

2

0

3

0

6

1

9

0

1

0

2

0

9

6

33

III

29

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

5

0

1

0

1

0

5

0

14

30

0

2

1

3

1

3

7

13

0

1

0

2

0

6

6

20

31

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

6

Total 3

0

2

1

3

1

3

11

17

0

1

0

2

0

6

8

23

IV

32

0

2

1

2

1

2

1

3

0

1

0

2

0

2

0

7

33

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

3

Total 2

0

2

1

2

1

2

1

4

0

1

0

2

0

2

0

7

V

Total 4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

   

Dialypetalous

Sympetalous

   

Families

Genera

Sections

Species

Families

Genera

Sections

Species

Region

Province

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

VI

38

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

39

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

2

0

4

0

6

40

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

3

41

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

2

3

5

42

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

43

0

1

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

1

0

1

0

3

1

3

44

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

3

0

3

45

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

3

0

4

46

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total 9

1

2

1

3

1

3

1

5

0

1

0

2

0

5

4

15

VII

Total 2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

VIII

49

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

50

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

51

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

52

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

53

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

54

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

3

55

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

56

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

57

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

58

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

59

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

60

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

5

0

16

Total 12

0

1

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

1

0

2

0

5

0

17

IX

61

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

62

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

3

63

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

64

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

2

2

10

36

42

Total 4

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

2

10

36

43

X

65

0

2

1

3

1

4

1

4

0

1

0

2

0

10

4

27

66

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

3

0

1

0

2

1

11

2

26

67

0

1

0

2

0

2

0

4

0

1

0

2

0

9

1

25

Total 3

1

2

1

3

1

4

1

7

0

1

0

2

2

12

9

38

XI

68

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

69

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

2

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

8

Total 2

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

3

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

8

 

Dialypetalous

Sympetalous

Families

Genera

Sections

Species

Families

Genera

Sections

Species

Region

Province

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

XII

70

0

1

0

2

0

4

6

13

0

1

0

2

1

11

8

36

71

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

2

0

1

0

2

0

5

0

18

72

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

73

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

5

0

11

74

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

75

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

76

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

77

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

78

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

3

Total 9

0

1

0

2

0

4

6

13

0

1

0

2

1

11

8

40

XIII

79

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

80

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

3

0

8

81

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

82

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total 4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

3

0

8

XIV

83

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

XV

84

0

2

0

2

0

3

3

7

0

1

0

2

0

7

0

18

85

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

86

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

87

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

88

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

89

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total 6

0

2

0

2

0

3

4

8

0

1

0

2

0

7

0

18

XVI

90

0

2

0

2

0

4

1

4

0

1

0

1

0

5

1

14

91

0

1

0

1

0

3

0

3

0

1

0

1

0

4

8

23

92

0

1

0

1

0

3

0

3

0

1

0

1

0

6

0

17

93

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

5

0

9

94

0

1

0

2

0

3

0

3

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

9

Total 5

0

2

0

3

0

6

1

6

0

1

0

1

0

7

12

27

XVII

95

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

5

0

11

96

0

2

0

2

0

3

0

7

0

1

0

1

0

5

1

10

97

0

2

0

2

0

5

0

6

0

1

0

1

1

6

1

9

98

0

2

0

2

0

4

0

6

0

1

0

1

0

6

1

15

99

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

2

0

1

0

1

0

5

0

8

100

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

4

0

1

0

1

0

5

0

14

101

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

1

0

1

0

7

2

19

Total 7

0

2

0

2

0

5

2

11

0

1

0

1

1

8

7

24

 

   

Dialypetalous

Sympetalous

   

Families

Genera

Sections

Species

Families

Genera

Sections

Species

Region

Province

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

XVIII

102

0

2

0

2

0

2

2

14

0

1

0

1

0

7

1

13

103

0

2

0

2

0

4

26

41

0

1

0

1

0

6

0

10

104

0

2

0

2

0

4

13

18

0

1

0

1

0

5

1

9

105

0

2

0

2

0

2

20

32

0

1

0

1

0

5

1

10

106

0

1

0

2

0

3

0

4

0

1

0

1

0

3

0

4

107

0

2

0

2

0

3

3

8

0

1

0

1

0

3

0

4

108

0

2

0

2

0

5

7

16

0

2

0

2

0

7

1

12

109

0

2

0

2

0

4

0

8

0

1

0

1

0

6

0

10

110

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total 9

0

2

0

3

0

7

81

92

0

2

0

2

0

9

4

23

XIX

Total 2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

XX

Total 2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

XXI

115

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

XXII

116

0

2

0

2

0

2

2

2

0

1

0

1

0

3

0

3

XXIII

117

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

3

0

1

0

3

0

19

6

35

118

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

3

0

1

0

3

1

13

7

26

119

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

Total 3

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

4

0

1

0

3

1

20

13

45

XXIV

120

0

2

1

2

2

3

8

10

0

1

0

2

3

19

17

45

XXV

121

0

1

0

1

0

2

5

10

0

1

0

2

0

15

5

41

122

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

2

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

8

Total 2

0

1

0

1

0

2

6

11

0

1

0

2

0

15

6

41

XXVI

123

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

2

0

1

0

2

0

6

0

6

124

0

1

0

1

0

2

4

6

0

1

0

2

0

14

11

46

125

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

7

126

0

1

0

1

0

2

1

5

0

1

0

2

0

10

2

22

127

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

1

0

2

0

10

0

23

Total 5

0

1

0

1

0

2

5

10

0

1

0

2

1

17

17

51

XXVII

128

0

1

0

1

0

1

2

3

0

1

0

2

0

6

2

15

129

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

2

0

9

0

16

Total 2

0

1

0

1

0

1

2

3

0

1

0

2

0

9

3

22

XXVIII

130

1

2

1

2

1

3

15

15

0

1

0

1

0

3

0

5

XXIX

131

0

1

0

2

0

5

11

18

0

2

0

2

0

9

23

42

132

0

2

0

2

0

7

3

11

0

2

0

2

0

9

2

19

133

0

1

0

2

0

10

1

11

0

1

0

1

0

8

2

14

134

0

1

0

1

0

6

0

7

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

7

Total 4

0

2

0

2

0

10

18

30

0

2

0

2

1

11

33

52

XXX

135

1

2

1

2

4

10

63

69

0

2

0

2

1

5

11

14

XXXI

136

0

1

0

1

0

3

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

XXXII

137

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

Dialypetalous

Sympetalous

Families

Genera

Sections

Species

Families

Genera

Sections

Species

Region

Province

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

E

I

XXXIII

138

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

139

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

140

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

1

0

1

0

6

0

13

141

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

142

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

Total 5

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

5

0

1

0

2

0

7

2

14

XXXIV

Total 2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

XXXV

145

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

146

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

147

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

148

0

1

0

1

0

5

0

6

0

1

0

1

0

3

0

4

149

0

1

0

1

0

5

0

6

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

3

150

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

5

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

151

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

152

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

Total 8

0

1

0

1

0

5

1

6

0

1

0

1

0

3

1

4

Table I. Global diversity of carnivorous plants. Numbers of taxa are given. If no taxa occur in a region with more than one province, the null data for the individual provinces have been omitted. E: endemic; I: indigenous.

References

Casper, S.J. 1966, Monographie der Gattung Pinguicula L., Biblioth. Bot. 127/128: 1-209.

Fromm-Trinta, E. 1977, Tayloria Fromm-Trinta. Nova seção do gênero Genlisea St.-Hil. (Lentibulariaceae), Boletim Mus. Nac. Rio de J., n. s. Bot. 44: 1-4.

Schlauer, J. 1996, A Dichotomous Key to the Genus Drosera L. (Droseraceae), Carniv. Pl. Newslett. 25: 67-88.

Takhtajan, A. 1986, Floristic Regions of the World, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.

Taylor, P.G. 1989, The Genus Utricularia, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 14: 1-724.



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